An electric field is a vector field, because it has direction. The Higgs force between virtual particles in empty space [remember virtual particles aren’t really particles at all, ] is just one of many important things going on in the very complex place we call “the vacuum of empty space”. The exponential e-Mwr/ℏc makes the force remarkably weak! [Even if the Higgs field did give protons and neutrons all their masses, the Higgs forces inside a nucleus would still be vastly smaller than those of gravity, which in turn are incredibly small compared to the residual strong nuclear force that holds the nuclei together.]. In this article I partially explained how the hydrogen atom’s size can be inferred from quantum mechanics principles, and you can use that result to see why the speed comes out to be αc, and why the motion-energy and interaction-energy come out to be ½ mc² α². It’s the kind of question that I would discuss extensively with graduate students, and I am reluctant to answer it here precisely because requires a deep, technical discussion — beyond the scope of this website. A counterpoint: you could train force production by pushing really hard against your house. That is, we can view these forces in their functionalities instead of their strengths. But physically, it has no measurable meaning. In fact, although they differ enormously at macroscopic distances, the strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and electromagnetic forces differ in strength by only about a factor of 10 at distances shorter than about 3 × 10-18 meters. neither has worse form/cheating/pains afterwards). So instead of what we had at small α — a simple system of mass just below 2m, consisting of an electron and a positron moving at speeds well below the speed of light — we find, as α approaches 1, an exceedingly complex system, with multiple particles moving at or near light-speed, with a mass that is very different from 2m. But a muon decays to a neutrino, an antineutrino and an electron, via a short-range force that we know isn’t holding the electron together. In a competition, using power (and consequently, speed) will help you mentally perform the lift. I am still quite unsatisfied with the curve of the strong force , any curve representing a function cannot just stop nowhere , either it go to infinity in value /distance or it diminish to zero , would you please clarify this point. 1.) Electrons are drawn in blue, positrons in red, and photons in orange. If strong nuclear force is really separated (splitted) will release incredible strength – more than residual strong nuclear force ? The weak force, however, is complicated by the fact that the W and Z are massive; this means that charge is still conserved but in a non-obvious way, because charge can disappear into the vacuum. Your explanations are confusing and misleading. Story one: But for electrons, which have a low mass because their interaction with the Higgs field is small, the force even at  short distances would be much weaker than electric forces — more than a thousand million times weaker — though still thousands of millions of millions of times stronger than gravitational forces between electrons. This makes k and e related, changing the value of e used to calculate k changes k. ke^2 thus becomes independent of ‘charge’ for the force. And, simply it has “no” theoretical “base” for deriving those parameters and for connecting to those other physics facts. Mother: This is the most famous fairy tale. So even a uranium atom remains rather simple compared to a proton…, How Weak is the Weak Nuclear Force? Or is it that the quantitative difference (i.e. “electric fields are spin-1 fields” -> what do you mean by this? The degenerated K (couplings) is caused by different “charges” (job-types). If you want to lift really heavy things, continue to push your body to lift heavier things. The only gadgets needed for testing them are “paper and pencil” which are in the hands of every first grader. Quantum gravity often tries to reconcile the two. In this sense, positronium is relatively big. You have to be more careful when you start dealing with complicated gravitational objects like black holes or the universe as a whole. It simply stops being meaningful. “Dualities” which allow you to write a very strong force’s behavior in terms of a very weak one are remarkable, complex, quantum mechanical, hard to explain, and in most cases are not well-enough understood even to state clearly. (Side note; checking Wikipedia for n-body problem, it seems a solution is known to be impossible only for some specific method. But the winner of the competition is the person who exerts the most force. If you have already written such an article, I’d really appreciate you pointing it out! Notice that velocity does not appear at all in the term involving the electric field. Excellent article. insanely detailed article talking about bench press mechanics. This Higgs force speculation can go one step deeper, again, with a conversation. affects the force strength or coupling constant though.. (and I am not sure how to do this precisely.). And for the low-mass particles out of which we’re made, which interact weakly with the Higgs field, the Higgs force is always thousands of millions of times weaker than electric forces, even at very short distances. (1) Your fig. (It could in theory be done with very high charges and/or short distances, but it’s not easy.) Here, our electron, while more like a real particle than the generic virtual particle, is still highly distorted, and doesn’t fit the definition of “real particle” anymore either. Nope, the point of most motion is to move something, not to forever exert force onto an immovable object and get nowhere.eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'roamstrong_com-box-4','ezslot_3',147,'0','0'])); So remember when I said Powerlifting was about force production? The wave structures in a box requires a box. Massless virtual photons also have spin-1? Some very good points. Or, they(physicists) just assume that it comes in the smallest unit like the Planck mass, and calculate the relative strength of force created by “e” and “m”? Real particles are supposed to be well-behaved ripples in a quantum field. That said, it might end up being how we discover dark matter. Then, we can go one more step; viewing these forces are building an amphitheater (without ceiling and walls) with chairs and stages, similar to the universe with quarks, nuclei, …, galaxies, etc.. If α is small, then the time it takes light to cross the atom-like state is much larger, by 1/α, than the heartbeat of the particles that it contains. I think there might be a typo: “If α is large, then the time it takes light to cross the atom-like state is much larger, by 1/α, than the heartbeat of the particles that it contains.” Should be “If α is small”? Electric field intensity formula What is e (electric charge)? How durable are they (e.g. ( Log Out /  amount of charge that an elementary particle(like an electron/positron etc.) Step 2: (d1, -d3) turns into (u1, -u3), this is a vacuum state transforms into another vacuum state. Otherwise, even the “Z”-einstein won’t do any good. e appears in it in that 1 C = 6.241 × 10^18 e. Imagine now that we are going to use 2e as out ‘1’ If we just plug in 2 into the equation we will get an ‘α’ that is four times larger. But now imagine making α gradually larger and larger, increasing toward 1. Interesting. Holiday Higgs Hints: Confidence-Inspiring or Not? One caveat: newer athletes commonly injure themselves trying to produce power before they have the raw force capability to do so. There’s a difference in adaptation between punching, hauling a stone, or trying to get muscularly larger. We can interpret this, “there is already a Grand unification at very short distance much, much lesser than 2x 10^-18 meters?” – there is already high energy there ? 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